Spread out particles that are mostly transparent

In the previous article, I wrote how gravity could be achieved if we take radiation into account and take the averages of many possible paths. In this article, I am going to argue that we do not have to take the average of many paths, but just assume that a particle is really big, and that many particles are constantly interacting with it at levels proportional to their distance. I will just arbitrarily work with the width of the heliosphere as the size of particles, but it could be anything, including the width of the (known) universe.

I have no evidence for anything that I am going to write in this article. It is just mostly uninformed speculation. I can just see that the idea I have could create a universe where there is some form of gravity that is caused by radiation. That universe might be totally different from the one we live in, I don’t really know. But maybe this idea has some merit, and so let me explain.

Fields and assumptions

An electron generates an electric field around it. But what is this field?

To cut to the chase, I am going to assume that this field, and any other field, including ones that we might not know about, is part of the electron or other particle. I have no evidence for such a thing, but I will use it as a work hypothesis. I will also just blindly speculate that this spread-out-part (sop) can be in superposition with the sop of other particles. Since I arbitrarily assumed that particles are the size of the heliosphere in the introduction of the article, that would mean that the interplanetary vacuum is a superposition of the sop of the particles of mostly the Sun. In it, we then reside.

I am also going to assume that the sop of particles that are highly energetic is thicker and wider. Other particles interacting with it, will interact with it more strongly.

Also I assume that sop can not only be pushed by radiation, but also pulled.

Lastly, I will assume that radiation that passes through sop will give some energy to it proportional to its own energy, though the amount is immeasurably small.

I want to assume these things, as I think this could explain gravity.

External and internal radiation

In this article, I am going to write about external radiation. With this I mean all radiation that comes from outside of a system, and not the radiation that comes from the star itself. For simplicity’s sake, external radiation also means all particles that enter a system, Fermions and Bosons alike, in any composition.

The opposite of external radiation is internal radiation, where the radiation doesn’t come in from all sides, but from one point, namely a star, and is spread in all directions. What matters in this idea is the direction of the radiation. Radiation either comes from outside a system from all sides (roughly) evenly, or comes (on average) from a single point in the center of a system spread (roughly) evenly in all directions. In composition, external and internal radiation are, of course, the same, as external radiation is generated by stars as well.

External radiation comes from everywhere, except the center of a system

In my previous article, I wrote about a uniform field of radiation that a particle moves through. This could generate gravity on average. The interstellar radiation that in this idea would cause gravity, comes from all sides (roughly) evenly. When radiation passes through the sop of the Sun from one direction, there will always be other external radiation that comes from the other side.

So, whenever radiation pushes particles through their sop in one direction, other radiation pushes it in the other. In this way, radiation can contain matter at a “distance”. Though it is important that particles shield each other to achieve this effect.


External radiation can come from all sides, except in between particles. Particles of mass shield other particles of mass from external radiation. In my previous article, I demonstrated that a particle blocking radiation would increase the probability that a passing particle is knocked towards it. Now, I would like to argue that the same effect can be achieved by envisioning particles as being very large and mostly transparent. This way, you do not need to take an average. A huge amount of particles will simply interact a tiny bit on one particle, therefore creating the same result.

The shielding effect must also happen in the sop of the particles. This could be true if radiation transfers a portion of its energy, depending on its total energy, to the particle of mass that it gives gravity to. This way, a particle behind the initial particle interacted with, will “catch” less energy, and therefore will be pushed away less from the particles that it shielding it, than it is pushed towards it by “fresh” radiation that comes from the other side. Assuming that radiation is uniform from all sides, the “freshness” of the radiation will always be in favor of gravity, and will push two objects together. The difference in energy transfer between “fresh” and “stale” radiation would than be the force of gravity.

The star problem

For a long time I dismissed this sop idea, as I could not see how a giant ball of radiation could be contained by radiation, and how close-by orbiting objects, like the Parker Solar Probe, wouldn’t be blasted out of orbit by the very strong radiation of the Sun. Then I realized something. A star might both push and pull at sop at the same time, thereby only generating heat, but no movement. If sop is really wide, than a star is but a point within it. It is as if the internal radiation comes from a point.

When the Parker Solar Probe comes very close to the Sun, its sop extends all the way to the other side of the Sun, and, since it is so close, its sop would extend almost as much on its own side of the Sun as on the other. Because the Sun’s radiation comes from its center on average, it will both push the Parker Solar Probe away, as well as pull it in. These forces will mostly cancel out. The only thing remaining is direct interactions between the particles of the Parker Solar Probe and the radiation from the Sun, and the sop interaction in the area between the Parker Solar Probe and the Sun, which would not be cancelled out. All other radiation pressure would then come from external radiation interacting with the sop of the Parker Solar Probe. The Sun would still act as a shield, even when it itself sends out radiation. Because the internal radiation comes from a point (on average), it both pushes and pulls on a close-by object.

Schematic representation of the Sun both pushing and pulling on the sop of the Parker Solar Probe. The arrows represent a selection of radiation that is generated by the Sun. The red part of the arrows is cancelled out by opposite radiation pulling the Parker Solar Probe in. The green part is not cancelled out and will push the Parker Solar Probe out.

The same applies to the particles of the Sun itself. They are, of course, regularly pushed out of the Sun because of direct interactions with the Sun’s radiation. However, the interaction between the Sun’s radiation and the sop of its own particles will be almost completely cancelled out by other radiation from the Sun that goes in the opposite direction. So, only external radiation will have a big sop-influence on the particles of the Sun. Its own radiation will push and pull almost the same amount on the sop of its own particles. What remains, being the direct interactions with the Sun’s radiation, and some small distance sop-interactions that aren’t cancelled out, then generates the pressure necessary to keep the Sun spherical.

Gravitational lensing

Since gravitational lensing is a real phenomenon, I would have to just blindly state that light traveling through sop of a certain thickness, starts to bend around with the sop. But, especially if it would also lose some energy to gravity, it might make creating gravity easier, somehow. I do not really have the appropriate expertise to judge this. It just seems to me that by bending, the light stays longer in a system, and therefore seems to have more opportunity to share its energy.


Cavendish, of course, famously measured gravity on Earth. He did so by measuring the twist in a string when one ball attached to it was attracted by another. I would argue that external radiation would have a hard time separating Cavendish’s balls, but, if their sop extends all the way into space, would have an easy time pushing them together, following the “fresh” and “stale” radiation idea written above. Cavendish’s balls shield each other.


I find it hard to come up with a mechanism in which radiation and particle exchange energy “at a distance”. It could be that sop somehow transfers energy directly, but whatever it is, for this idea to work in combination with stars, when radiation is spread in all directions inside sop, it must also be able to not just push on sop, but also pull on it. I don’t really know how this would work exactly.

I do really want to postulate that there is some form of energy transfer, as the radiation that a star spreads, has to have been “harvested” somewhere, and the heat in the center of other celestial bodies also has to come from somewhere.

I also want to stress here that the amount of energy transfer from one particle to another has to only be exceptionally tiny for it to enact gravity. So tiny, in fact, that it is immeasurable.

Interaction at long distances only needs to be exceptionally tiny

The interaction between particles through very long sop only needs to be very tiny for it to enact gravity. Gravity itself is such a small force, that it cannot be measured between (elementary) particles. Since the amount of external radiation particles that act on a certain particle is huge, and they only have to generate gravity together, the particle-on-particle interaction at long distances has to be incredibly tiny. I do not know how many particles of external radiation are in our solar system, but I can imagine that it is in the 10^50 range at any moment. If I understand correctly, you would have to divide the force of gravity by this number to get the average particle-to-particle force. It seems to me, then, that this is impossible to ever measure.

In physics, if I understand correctly, the electric field diminishes at a rate of 1/r^2, where r is the distance to the particle. I will just assume that this is true for all other fields. Uranus is about 2.5 billion kilometers away from the Sun. In meters this is 2.5 trillion. The fields of the particles of the Sun there diminished by 1/(2.5 * 10^12)^2 = 1.6 * 10^-25. That means that there is not that much there, but gravity would only need the tiniest amounts of energy per particle. 1.6 8 10^-25 is not zero!

Expectancy value

The reason this system looks so much like many worlds, is that in many worlds, there is a chance that a particle interacts with radiation at a certain distance. With this sop idea, the interaction always happens, but proportionally. It is as if the expectancy value is passed on from one particle to another.

Virtual particles

I do no want to digress to much from the main point of how gravity could be generated by external radiation, but I do want to mention that the movement that sop must have in its superposition would be very erratic, as it would mimic the movement of mostly the particles of the Sun in our solar system. It would be very reminiscent of the concept of virtual particles in quantum physics, if I understand correctly. In fact, I think I am arguing that these virtual particles are sop, and they do not just influence particles that travel through the sop and interact with the virtual particles, but those interactions also influence the distant particle that the sop is attached to. Gravity would then exist within the behavior of these virtual particles. Or in other words, virtual particles do not even out, they house on average momentum in favor of gravity.


It seems to me that the idea that particles are really big and interact with each other at huge distances in very tiny ways, can explain gravity. Though I know too little about physics to be able to determine to what extent this is possible mathematically or proven right or wrong by evidence.